STEP 2009

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    midterm stuff

    Cadet Boyajian

    Posts : 57
    Join date : 2009-02-08

    midterm stuff

    Post  Cadet Boyajian on Sat Feb 28, 2009 3:34 pm

    You guys want to break up the SOBs?

    Posts : 56
    Join date : 2009-02-09

    Re: midterm stuff

    Post  karls on Sat Feb 28, 2009 7:46 pm

    We should already have all of the SOBs done from the test reviews. Those plus the printed out slides that Capt Lilly gave us should give us everything that we need & more.
    Cadet Boyajian

    Posts : 57
    Join date : 2009-02-08

    Re: midterm stuff

    Post  Cadet Boyajian on Sun Mar 01, 2009 5:24 pm

    yeah...what I meant was, do you guys wanna break up looking for the SOBs from Captain Lilley's slides and type them out in clear terms?
    Cadet Boyajian

    Posts : 57
    Join date : 2009-02-08

    Re: midterm stuff

    Post  Cadet Boyajian on Tue Mar 03, 2009 1:56 am


    (the sentences are from Captain Lilley's slides)

    Lesson 6- Airpower Through the Cold War Part II

    1. Identify the significance of the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, August 1964:

    Led to the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, in which Congress gave the President the authority to commit troops to defend S Vietnam and SEATO countries. Committed the US to war in SE Asia.

    • Gulf Tonkin Resolution- gave President Johnson authority to retaliate against future N. Vietnamese attacks
    • Ordered A.F. jets into S.E. Asia (only propeller planes permitted in S. Vietnam because of Geneva convention)
    • These changes did not immediately alter the war’s course
    • Congress’s vote basically gave president sole authority for policy in S.E. Asia and the right to use force as he saw fit

    2. State the purpose of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO):

    To prevent the fall of Southeast Asian countries to communism. Many believed in the Domino Theory—if one country fell, soon more would.

    • An international organization for collective defense created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty or the Manila Pact, which was signed on September 8, 1954. The formal institution of SEATO was established at a meeting of treaty partners in Bangkok in February 1955. It was primarily created to block further communist gains in Southeast Asia. (wikipedia)

    3. Describe how airpower was used in S.E. Asia to interdict the Ho Chi Minh Trail (N. Vietnamese supply routes into S. Vietnam):

    Trail was a series of roads/paths through N Vietnam, Laos, and S Vietnam. US bombed the trail constantly to reduce supplies/troop movements. Used f-4s, f-100s, C-47s, and AC-130s. N Vietnamese repaired roads as fast as we bombed them. B-52 Arc Light missions began in 1965—the most effective.

    • dropped herbicides on jungle (Agent Orange) to reveal enemy
    • aided ground groups with bombing and strafing
    • helped with aerial reconnaissance
    • attacked supply depots, training areas, and troops

    4. Describe “Rolling Thunder,” “Linebacker I,” and “Linebacker II” (strategic bombing campaigns against N. Vietnam):

    Air campaign initiated to implement “gradual response” strategy. Objectives were to interdict North’s supply routes, force the North to stop supporting the VC and quit the war, and raise the South’s morale. Was both strategic bombing and interdiction. Had many limitations, such as no bombing of Hanoi, Halphong, or the China border and no bombing of MIG bases and non-firing SAM sites. Campaign was a failure because of restrictions and slow intensity. Highly controlled by politicians.

    Linebacker I:
    Close air support/interdiction bombing campaign in response to the North’s failure to negotiate in 1972. Began as a support mission to protect retreating S Vietnamese troops, and soon became an interdiction mission over the North. Restrictions of Rolling Thunder were removed. Systematic with few controls. Haipohong harbor was mined for the first time. B-52s played a major role in hitting Halphong and around Hanoi. Major reason why peace talks resumed in 1972.

    Linebacker II:
    December 1972 bombing campaign; ran concurrently with Linebacker I. Purpose was to bring the North back to peace talks, have them sign treaty. Very intense campaign with specific targets in Hanoi and Haiphong. B-52s were used for the first time over Hanoi. Brought North Vietnam to its knees and back to the negotiations. A great success; bombing ceased in Jan 1973.

    • Rolling Thunder
    o March 2, 1965- November 1, 1968
    o Tailored towards slowly upping pressure on enemy in hopes of surrender vs. swift and intense campaign
    o Focused largely on interdicting flow of supplies from N to S
    o Developed air wars in SE Asia: N Vietnam, S Vietnam, N Laos, S Laos
    o North Vietnamese responded by building modern, radar-controlled air-defense system and acquiring SAMs (surface-to-air missiles) from Soviets
    o “search and destroy” approach towards Viet Cong
    o As N. Vietnamese supplied by China and USSR, USAF had no choice but interdiction

    • Linebacker I
    o April-October 1972
    o Aerial-interdiction campaign against all of N. Vietnam- including southern parts
    o US aircraft now had permission to attack airfields, power plants, and radio stations that before had not fallen into the interdiction category
    o Disrupting flow of supplies still the objective however
    o Interdiction closer to battlefield more effective because N. Vietnamese could not as easily find citizens to rebuild vs. farther north
    o New goal of inflicting casualties as means of stopping 3-front communist offensive

    • Linebacker II
    o December 18-29, 1972 (36 hr break for xmas)
    o AF and navy bombers struck by day, B-52s by night
    o Tailored to overwhelming N. Vietnamese into signing truce
    o Carefully planned strikes to avoid residential areas
    o At first flew B-52s in long, single stream to prevent air collisions; yet, this made them easy targets, so ended after xmas
    o Attacks on missile sites (F-4s by day, F-11s at night)

    5. Describe the uses and effectiveness of the B-52 in the Vietnam conflict:

    Highly effective against close air support targets; e.g. Khe Sanh. Employed effectively in Linebacker I and II over Hanoi and Halphong. Used as a conventional bomber to drop tons of bombs from high altitude. Most effective interdiction aircraft of the war. Arc Light missions flown from Guam.

    • Many borrowed from SAC when need for more aircraft that could support tactical bombing arose (June 1965)
    • During 1972, cells of 3 B-52s used to strike at N. Vietnamese ground forces
    • Dropped bombs from 7 miles- equipment readjusted for tactical bombing purposes

    6. Describe and give an example of the tactical airlift missions flown during the Vietnam Conflict:

    Tactical airlift was critical to our success and the survival of many. Essential because of the lack of security on the roads and inadequate landing facilities. C-130s, C-7s, and UH-1s used extensively to move troops/supplies. Missions often flown while under fire; many supplies had to be airdropped. Khe Sanh and many other bases were kept alive because of tactical airlift.

    • “search and destroy” Viet Cong
    • Interdiction bombing
    • Ground support
    • Bombing of N. Vietnamese troops in major cities during Tet Offensive
    • See question 4 for more examples/descriptions

    7. Identify the “graduated response” strategy that the US adopted in Vietnam between 1965 and 1967:

    A limited war-fighting strategy that called for a slow and gradual increase in intensity. Based on the premise that fear of future bombing would bring the North to its senses; actually had the opposite effect and gave them the time/will to endure. Based on the fear that too much intensity would draw the Chinese and Soviets into the conflict.

    • Strong remembrances of Chinese involvement in Korea
    • Political leaders terriefied of provoking China/USSR
    • Hoped to slowly up pressure on N. Vietnamese until they backed down (we only permitted bombing for interdiction purposes in N. Korea until Linebacker I!)

    8. Describe the USAF’s Search and Recovery mission in Vietnam:

    Boistered morale of all fliers; they knew that someone would come after them if they were shot down. Used HH-3 Jolly Green Giant and HH-53 Super Jolly Green Giant helicopters. Tactics included C-130s to refuel choppers to extend the range, A-1 Sandys to suppress fire, and specially trained personnel to extract the downed flier. Rescue team motto: “So Others May Live”. USAF credited with 3,883 rescues.

    • Although army flew most helicopters, AF had own supply for search-and-rescue missions and special operations
    • By 1968, had rescued 1,500 people, nearly half of which airmen

    9. Identify the lessons learned from the Vietnam War:

    US alone cannot win a counterinsurgency; other country’s government/people must. Force/Technology are of limited value in combating a “people’s war”. Before committing forces, national leaders must base their decisions on realistic assessments. Know your enemy and yourself. Graduated response does not work; we cannot win by attrition, must act swiftly and decisively. Even though difficult to achieve because of disagreements over the perceived threat, Congressional and public support for fighting a limited war are critical in our democratic form of government. Moder wars are more open to public scrutiny due to the on-scene television coverage and American reluctance to impose censorship. It’s virtually impossible to hide weakness or bad news. Let those who know war run the war. We need revolutionary, not evolutionary, technology. We need precision munitions. We need to move from many aircraft on one target to one aircraft on many targets.

    • USAF needs to be prepared for tactical warfare, not just nuclear deterrence
    • Once war commences, let military leaders, not civilian leaders, run the war
    • Airpower’s purpose should be to overwhelm, not to pinprick (graduated response)
    • US must be careful when taking part in another country’s counterinsurgency and leave operations largely to that country’s government (especially when backing a government battling with rebel groups)
    • Must determine if goals are realistic (win war with limited use of power due to need to limit collateral damage)
    • Must keep public support in new media era before “committing the country’s military to an expenditure of blood and treasure”
    • AF needs better technology (as determined from experiences with MiGs, SAMs, and antiaircraft batteries)

    Posts : 56
    Join date : 2009-02-09

    Re: midterm stuff

    Post  karls on Tue Mar 03, 2009 9:30 am

    Thanks Boyajian, I'll finish the rest of the SOBs tonight/early tomorrow morning!
    Cadet Boyajian

    Posts : 57
    Join date : 2009-02-08

    Re: midterm stuff

    Post  Cadet Boyajian on Tue Mar 03, 2009 10:18 am

    karls wrote:Thanks Boyajian, I'll finish the rest of the SOBs tonight/early tomorrow morning!

    are you sure? I've got time to do it, had a class cancelled today.

    Posts : 56
    Join date : 2009-02-09

    Re: midterm stuff

    Post  karls on Tue Mar 03, 2009 12:38 pm

    Yep- its no problem. Theres only #10 from Lesson 6, and #1-5 from Lesson 7. Use the time to study for our War & Peace Midterm, you need it more than I do!

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    Re: midterm stuff

    Post  karls on Tue Mar 03, 2009 11:05 pm

    These are straight off of Capt Lilly's slides as well...

    Lesson 6 (continued)

    10. Identify missile and aircraft systems developed after the Vietnam War:

    *2 key fighters developed-- McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle
    General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon
    *Close air suport needs lead to A-10 Thunderbolt
    *Rockwell B-1B Lancer
    *Boeing E-3 Sentry (AWACS)
    *Peacekeeper Missile
    *Stealth Aircraft-- Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk
    Northrop B-2 Spirit
    *New airlifter-- McDonnell Douglas C-17
    Globemaster III
    *New advanced fighter-- Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor
    *On the Horizon-- Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightening II
    Next generation tanker

    Lesson 7 Airpower in the Post Cold War:

    1. State the US objectives of the Gulf War.
    *Immediate, complete, and unconditional withdrawal of all Iraqi forces from
    *Restoration of Kuwait's legitimate government
    *Security and stability of Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf
    *Protection of American citizens abroad

    2. List the objectives of the Air Campaign used in the Gulf War
    *Isolate and incapacitate Iraqi command and control structure
    *Win air superiority
    *Destroy nuclear, biological, and chemical weapon production, storage, and
    delivery capabilities
    *Sever Iraqi supply lines
    *Eliminate Iraqi offensive military capability (Republican Guards)
    *Eject Iraqi Army from Kuwait

    3. Outline the key elements of Colonel Warden's "INSTANT THUNDER" plan.
    *Initial plan developed by Colonel John Warden and his "Checkmate" staff
    *Named direct response to Vietnam's unsuccessfuk Rolling Thunder campaign
    *Based on a unique 5-ring model of the modern nation state
    *(diagram, from center circle outward, see slides 25 nd 16 for representation and
    application!) Leadership-->Organic Essentials-->Infrastructure-->
    Population-->Fielded Forces

    4. Identify the 4 phases of the Air Campaign.
    *Phase 1-- Strategic Air Campaign
    *Phase 2-- Suppression of enemy Air Defenses over Kuwait/vicinity
    *Phase 3-- Air attacks on ground forces in Kuwait/vicinity
    *Phase 4-- Ground Operations as directed

    5. Describe the significance of air and space power in the Gulf War.
    *Airpower played vital role in Gulf War
    *Iraqi military was scattered and defeated by 27 February, 1991
    *US Overwhelmed Iraqi Air Force-- Iraq lost 90 aircraft to combat, 16 to ground
    forces, 6 to accident; more probably destroyed in shelters, 122 aircraft fled to
    *Value of stealth aircraft validated
    *Demonstrated evolving and effective strategic doctrine

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    Re: midterm stuff

    Post  cadet.mcsherry on Wed Mar 04, 2009 10:19 pm

    anyone notice that this is just a conversation between Karls and Boyajian? Cool

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    Re: midterm stuff

    Post  karls on Thu Mar 05, 2009 1:01 am

    not anymore, thanks for joining mcsherry! Where's everyone else???

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    Join date : 2009-02-11

    Re: midterm stuff

    Post  Meiers on Thu Mar 05, 2009 12:38 pm

    studying! perhaps maybe to much? An then there were four.

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